Notes

1.        Philip Klinkner and Rogers Smith, The Unsteady March: The Rise and Decline of Racial Equality in America 167 (2002).
2.        Langston Hughes, The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes 281 (1994).
3.        Chad Williams, Torchbearers of Democracy 238 (2010).
4.        Roy Reed, Alabama Police Use Gas and Clubs to Rout Negroes, N.Y. Times (Mar. 8, 1965).
5.        Christopher S. Parker, Fighting for Democracy: Black Veterans and the Struggle Against White Supremacy in the Postwar South 41 (2009).
6.        Adriane Lentz-Smith, Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I 17 (2009).
7.        Parker, supra note 5, at 10; id. at 107.
8.        Williams, supra note 3, at 226.
9.        Id. at 31-32.
10.      Alexander H. Stephens, Cornerstone Address (March 21, 1861).
11.      Leon Litwack, Been In The Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery 66 (1979).
12.      Id. at 66-67.
13.      Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1. 1863): “...And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.”
14.        Elsie Freeman, Wynell Burroughs Schamel, and Jean West, The Fight for Equal Rights: A Recruiting Poster for Black Soldiers in the Civil War, 56 Soc. Educ. 118-20 (1992) (revised and updated in 1999 by Budge Weidman).
15.        Litwack, supra note 11, at 82, 85.
16.        Id. at 44-45.
17.        Id. at 182, 194-96.
18.        Michael Rhyne, “We Are Mobed & Beat”: Regulator Violence Against Free Black Households In Kentucky’s Bluegrass Region, 1865-1867, 2 Ohio Valley Hist. 35 (2002); see also Adriane Lentz-Smith, The Great War for Civil Rights: African American Politics and World War I, 1916-1920 238 (Ph.D. diss.,Yale Univ.) (2005).
19.        See EJI, Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror 9-11 (2015) (citing Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution 171-72, 180, 190-91, 222 (1988); Andrew Johnson, Third Annual Message to Congress (Dec. 3, 1867), available at http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29508; T. W. Gilbreth, The Freedmen’s Bureau Report on the Memphis Race Riots of 1866 (May 22, 1866), available at http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-freedmens-bureau-report-on-the-memphis-race-riots-of-1866/. U.S. Congress, House Select Committee on the Memphis Riots (July 25, 1866); Herbert Shapiro, White Violence and Black Response 6-7 (1988); James G. Hollandsworth Jr., An Absolute Massacre: The New Orleans Race Riot of July 30, 1866 3, 104-05, 126 (2001); Donald E. Reynolds, The New Orleans Riot of 1866, Reconsidered, 5 LA Hist.: J. LA. Hist. Assoc. 5, 5-27 (Winter 1964)).
20.        Act of April 19, 1866, § 1, 14 Stat. 27; Foner, supra note 19, at 250-51; U.S. Const. amend. XIV; The Slaughterhouse Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1872); United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1876).  For more details about these decisions and their impacts, see EJI, supra note 19, at 17-19.
21.        Alabama (see Alfred Avins ed., The Reconstruction Amendments’ Debates 209 (1967));  Florida (Black Code of 1866, § 1468);  Kentucky (Rhyne, supra note 18, at 34); Louisiana (LA. Stat. Of 1865, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 2, 39 Cong., 1 Sess., p. 93 July 1865,  § 7 (reprinted in Walter L. Fleming, Documentary History of Reconstruction, 280 (1906)); Mississippi (Certain Offenses of Freedmen, Laws of Mississippi, p. 165 Nov. 29, 1865,  § 1) (reprinted in Fleming at 289-90). 
22.        Michael A. Bellesiles, Firearms Regulation: A Historical Overview, 28 Crime & Just. 137, 159-60 (2001) (citing Florida Black Code of 1866, § 1468). 
23.        Certain Offenses of Freedmen, Laws of Mississippi 165 § 1 (Nov. 29, 1865) (reprinted in Fleming, supra note 21, at 289-90). 
24.        The Reign of Bloodshed, Memphis Argus (May 2, 1866).
25.        Stephen V. Ash, A Massacre In Memphis: The Race Riot That Shook The Nation One Year After The Civil War 173 (2013).
26.        Rhyne, supra note 18, at 30, 34.
27.        H. Exec. Docs., Report of Secretary of War, 40th Cong., 3rd Sess., No. 1, Vol. I, 1868-69 1056.
28.        Martha Greuning, Crisis 14-19 (Nov. 1917); President Saves Rioters; Commutes Sentences of Half a Score of Negro Soldiers Convicted of Murder, N.Y. Times 10 (Sep. 5, 1918); C. Calvin Smith, The Houston Riot of 1917, Revisited, 13 Houston Rev. 85 (1991).
29.        Rhyne, supra note 18, at 34, 38.
30.        John S. Marszalek, Attack at West Point: The Court Martial of John Whittaker  44-45, 50-51 (1972) (citing the National Archives, Military Archives, and Military Academy Special Collections); A Most Disgraceful Outrage, Orangeburg (S.C.) Times (April 9, 1880); Maimed for Life, Daily Globe (MN.) (April 7, 1880).
31.        Seeking “Fair Deal” for a Black Cadet, N.Y. Times (Jan. 31, 1994); Todd S. Purdham, Black Cadet Gets a Posthumous Commission, N.Y. Times (July 25, 1995).
32.        A Negro Soldier Lynched, Atl. Const. (June 12, 1888); Colored Soldier Lynched, Concordia (KS.) Blade-Empire (June 12, 1888).
33.        Arlen L. Fowler, The Black Infantry in the West, 1869-1891 58-62 (1996); A Montana Lynching, S.F. Chronicle 8 (July 2, 1888); A Negro Soldier Lynched, Atl. Const. (June 12, 1888); Three Negroes Lynched: They Are Taken From Jail and Meet Prompt Justice, N.Y. Times 2 (June 12, 1888).
34.        Negro Soldier Slain in Hampton, Atl. Const. (Aug. 20, 1898).
35.        Christopher C. Lovett, A Public Burning: Race, Sex, and the Lynching of Fred Alexander, 33 Kans. Hist. 94, 97-103 (2010); Lynched Negro Served in Spanish War, N.Y. Times 5 (Jan. 18, 1901).
36.        Lovett, supra note 35, at 103-09.37.        Id.; Enveloped in Flames He Denies His Guilt, Wichita Daily Eagle (Jan. 16, 1901); Mob Got Him: Fred Alexander Burned Alive in Leavenworth Street, Topeka State Journal (Jan. 16, 1901); Negro Burned in Kansas, Marshall (Mo.) Republican (Jan. 13, 1901).
38.        Stephen B. Bright, Discrimination, Death, and Denial: The Tolerance of Racial Discrimination in Infliction of the Death Penalty, 35 Santa Clara L. Rev. 433, 440 (1995); see also Charles David Phillips, Exploring Relations Among Forms of Social Control: The Lynching and Execution of Blacks in North Carolina, 1889-1918, 21 Law and Soc. Rev. 361, 372-73 (1987) (finding evidence that, prior to disenfranchisement, lynchings and executions were used in concert to suppress the black population, but once black people were politically neutralized, lynching became a “costly and unnecessary form of repression” and legal executions then became sufficient to punish deviance within the black population).
39.        Caldwell Held Without Bail For Murder, Anniston Star (Dec. 19, 1918); Negro Indicted for Murder in 90 Minutes, Anniston Star (Dec. 20, 1918); Indictment for Negro in Anniston Killing, Atl. Const. (Dec. 20, 1918); see also Vincent P. Mikkelsen, Fighting for Sergeant Caldwell: The NAACP Campaign Against “Legal” Lynching After World War I, 94 J. Af. Am. Hist. 4, 464-486 (2009).
40.        Caldwell v. State, 203 Ala. 412 (1919).
41.        Mikkelsen, supra note 39, at 478.
42.        Edgar Caldwell Dies on Gallows, Anniston Star (July 30, 1920).
43.        Nat’l Archives, Teaching With Documents: Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I, www.archives.gov/education/lessons/369th-infantry (last visited Nov. 13, 2015) (citing Bernard C. Nalty, Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military (1986); Arthur E. Barbeau and Floretter Henri, The Unknown Soldiers: Black American Troops in World War I (1974); Lerone Bennett Jr., Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619-1964 (1970)).
44.        W.E.B. DuBois, Close Ranks, in Let Nobody Turn Us Around: Voices of Resistance, Reform, and Renewal: An African American Anthology 242-43 (Manning Marable and Leith Mullings, eds., 2000).
45.        Chad L. Williams, Vanguards of the New Negro: African American Veterans and Post-World War I Racial Militancy, 92 J. Afr. Am. Hist. 347, 349 (2007).  
46.        Nat’l Archives, supra note 43; Barbeau, supra note 43; Bennett, supra note 43.
47.        Id.
48.        Williams, supra note 3, at 107.
49.        Id.; Paul Finkelman ed., Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-First Century 369 (2009); Hansi Lo Wang, The Harlem Hellfighters: Fighting Racism in the Trenches of World War I, NPR (April 1, 2014).
50.        Williams, supra note 3, at 124-25.
51.        Id. at 125.
52.        Obama To Honor Harlem Hellfighter With Medal Of Honor, NPR (June 2, 2015), 06/02/411406432/obama-to-honor-harlem-hellfighter-with-medal-of-honor. 
53.        Williams, supra note 3, at 121-22.
54.        Returning Soldiers, The Crisis (May 1919). 
55.        Mark Schneider, “We Return Fighting”: The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age 80 (2001). 
56.        Genna Rae McNeil, Before Brown: Reflections on Historical Context and Vision, 52 Am. U. L. Rev. 1431, 1435-36 (2003). 
57.        See Robert Whitaker, On the Laps of Gods (2008); Andrew Good, On the Laps of Gods: The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for Justice That Remade A Nation by Robert Whitaker Crown Publishers (2008), Champion 59 (2009). 
58.        Cameron McWhirter, Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America 14 (2011).
59.        Williams, supra note 3, at 249 (citing Murdering Negroes at Washington, Washington Bee (Aug. 23, 1919)). 
60.        Id. at 227 (citing The Work of the Inter-Racial Committee, Colored Work Department Records, box 9, Kautz Family YMC Archives), 253.
61.        George Haynes, For Action on Race Riot Peril, N.Y. Times (Oct. 5, 1919).
62.        Williams, supra note 3, at 143.
63.        Joel Black, 28 Law & Hist. Rev. 876, 877 (2010) (book review) (Adriane Lentz-Smith, Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 318 (2009)).
64.        Williams, supra note 3, at 237.  Decades later, Sgt. Johnson received posthumous American military honors for his bravery and service: the Purple Heart in 1996; a Distinguished Service Cross in 2002; and on June 2, 2015, President Obama awarded Sgt. Johnson the Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest award for bravery.
65.        Id. at 31.
66.        Id. at 226-30.
67.        Id. at 237-38.
68.        Id. at 239.
69.        Lentz-Smith, dissertation, supra note 18, at 220-21.
70.        Williams, supra note 3, at 238-39 (citing Sylvester, Georgia (Aug. 1, 1919), reel 1, Files on Discrimination in the Military, Papers of the NAACP; Negro Soldier Beat Up in Worth County, Macon News (April 29, 1919), reel 222, frame 20, TINCF); Want Assailants of Soldier Punished, N.Y. Age (May 3, 1919). 
71.        Want Assailants of Soldier Punished, N.Y. Age (May 3, 1919). 
72.        Barbeau, supra note 43, at 78.
73.        See Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: The Last Mass Lynching in America (2004).
74.        Defender Vows to Fight Until Lynch Evil Dies: Four Negroes Murdered By Georgia Mob; Horror Sweeps Nation Victims Of Southern Insanity, The Chicago Defender (Aug. 3, 1946); Ga. Massacre Quiz Farmer Six Hours; Fifty More Witnesses On List, The Chicago Defender (Dec. 14, 1946).
75.         FBI Investigates Claim Suspects in 1946 Georgia Mass Lynching May Be Alive, The Guardian (Feb. 16, 2015).  
76.        The Ghosts and Terror of America’s “Last Mass Lynching,” Wash. Post (Feb. 18, 2015).
77.        George Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky 119-20 (1990); Vincent Mikkelsen, Coming Back from Battle to Face a War: the Lynching of Black Soldiers in the WWI Era 100 (Ph.D. diss., Fla. St. Univ.) (2007); Williams, supra note 3, at 223.
78.        Williams, supra note 3, at 223; Negro Soldier Hanged by Mob, Okla. City Times (Dec. 16, 1918); Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 100.  
79.        Negro Soldier Hanged by Mob, Okla. City Times (Dec. 16, 1918); Soldier Lynched: Kentucky Mob Takes Man from Hickman Jail, Watchman and Southron (S.C.) (Dec. 21, 1918); Negro Soldier Lynched, The Wilson Times (Dec. 17, 1918); Williams, supra note 3, at 223.
80.        Williams, supra note 3, at 223-24; Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 101-02; KY Mob Lynches Negro Ex-Soldier, The Washington Times (Dec. 17, 1918); Negro Soldier Hanged by Mob, Okla. City Times (Dec. 16, 1918); Soldier Lynched: Kentucky Mob Takes Man from Hickman Jail, Watchman and Southron (S.C.) (Dec. 21, 1918).
81.        Barbeau, supra note 43, at 177.
82.        Nip It in the Bud, True Democrat (LA.) (Dec. 21, 1918). 
83.        Negro Couple Lynched Near Pickens, Miss., El Paso Herald (May 10, 1919). 
84.        Lynch Negro Ex-Soldier, Richmond Times-Dispatch (July 17, 1919); Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 126.
85.        Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 12 (citing Crisis 82 (Dec. 1919)). 
86.        Former Colored Soldier is Lynched for Having a White Sweetheart, N.Y. Age (Oct. 4, 1919).   
87.        Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 134-35.
88.        Whitaker, supra note 57, at 48; Dallas Express (May 31 1919); Negro Burned at Stake, Evening Missourian (May 22, 1919); Burn Negro at Stake, Topeka State Journal (May 22, 1919); Daily Capital Journal (May 28, 1919). 
89.        Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 131, 133 (citing Crisis 243 (March 1920); New York Post (May 23, 1919); Shreveport Journal (May 22, 1919); Cincinnati Enquirer (May 22, 1919); Crisis 183-86 (Feb. 1920); Arkansas Gazette (May 22-25, 1919); Shillady to Governor Charles Brough, NAACP Anti-Lynching Papers, Reel 8/300-304 (May, 23, 1919)). 
90.        Burns Negro to Death, Alexandria Gazette (May 23, 1919). 
91.        Id.; Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 131 (citing Ansonia Sentinel (May 22, 1919); NAACP Anti-Lynching Papers, Reel 8/309). 
92.        John Shillady to Governor Charles Brough, Dallas Express (May 31, 1919); Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 133 (citing John R. Shillady to Governor Charles Brough, Little Rock, Ark. (May 23, 1919), NAACP Anti-Lynching Papers, Reel 8/300-304).
93.        Mikkelsen, supra note 77, at 134.
94.        Id. at 110-13.
95.        Florida Governor Resents NAACP’s Protest Against Lynching: Decries the Possibility of Punishing Lynchers in his State, The Dallas Express (Apr. 12, 1919).  
96.        Mob Kills Negro Bogalusa Woman Brands Assailant, New Orleans Times-Picayune (Sep. 1, 1919).
97.        Williams, supra note 3, at 235-36 (citing Lynching Actively Investigated, News & Observer (NC.) (Dec. 31, 1919)). 
98.        The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, Jim Crow Stories: Hosea Williams (1926-2000), Public Broadcasting System, http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_people_will.html (last visited Sept. 22, 2015); Hosea Williams (1926-2000), 30 J. Blacks in Higher Educ. 70-71; Hosea Williams, 74, Rights Crusader Dies, N.Y. Times (Nov. 17, 2000); The Rev. Hosea Williams, 74, Leader of Civil Rights-Marches, Baltimore Sun (Nov. 16, 2000).     
99.        Negro Shot to Death in Dash for Freedom, The Tennesseean (Jan. 12, 1922); Negro Lynched; Insulted Woman, Sheriff Asserts, Atl. Const. (Jan. 12, 1922); Interview with Cynthia Franklin (June 29. 2016).
100.        Mob Attacks: One Dead Two, Badly Beaten, [newspaper unknown] (June 25, 1937) [accessed through Tuskegee microfilm records].
101.        Walter T. Howard, Lynchings: Extralegal Violence in Florida During the 1930s 124-32 (2005); Florida Grand Jury Indicts 2 in Lynching, Montgomery Advertiser (May 5, 1939); Daytona Lynchers are Jailed for Murder, Northwest Enterprise (May 12, 1939); Free Two Men in Lynching of Vet, Atl. Daily World (May 29, 1939). 
102.        Believe Vet Lynched in Ga. Town,  N.Y. Amsterdam News (Dec. 11, 1943). 
103.        Parker, supra note 5, at 41.
104.        Id.
105.        The Courier’s Double-V For a Double Victory Campaign Gets Country-Wide Support, Phil. Courier (Feb. 14, 1942). 
106.         Id.
107.        Parker, supra note 5, at 43-44.
108.        Ronald Takaki, Double Victory: A Multicultural History of America in World War II (2000); id. at 34 (citing Louis Coleridge Kesselman, The Social Politics of FEPC: A Study in Reform Pressure Movements 167 (2012)).  
109.        Karl Frederickson,  The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South 13, 32 (2001). 
110.        Id. at 91; National WWII Museum, African Americans in World War II: Fighting for a Double Victory, available at http://www.nationalww2museum.org/assets/pdfs/african-americans-in-world.pdf (last visited Nov. 4, 2016).
111.        The Perilous Fight: America’s World War II In Color, Public Broadcasting Service, http://www.pbs.org/perilousfight/social/african_americans/letters/.
112.        Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America 113 (2005).
113.        Id. at 113, 116, 119 (citing G.I. Bill of Rights and What It Means, New Orleans Weekly (Sep. 16, 1944)).
114.        Id. at 114.
115.        Id. at 123-28.
116.        Id. at 115, 139.

117.        Id. at 116, 140, 114 (citing Truman K. Gibson, Government Fails Negro Vets: Systematic Denial of Rights Under GI Bill Scored at Conference; New Technique Needed to Get Results Under Government Program, Pitt. Courier (Apr. 13, 1946)); see also Ta-Nehisi Coates, The Case for Reparations, The Atlantic (June 2014).  
118.        Richard C. Dieter, Battle Scars: Military Veterans and the Death Penalty, Death Penalty Information Center 4 (Oct. 2015) available at: http://deathpenaltyinfo.org/files/pdf/BattleScars.pdf.
119.        Id. at 33. 
120.        Id. at 20-21, 33; Dee Hibbert-Jones and Nomi Talisman, Last Day of Freedom (2015).
121.        Negro Quarter of Beaumont Destroyed in Race Riots, Daily Capital Journal (Salem, Ore.) (June 17, 1943); Troops End Detroit Riot After 23 Die, Oakland Tribune (June 22, 1943); Steven A. Reich, The Great Black Migration: A Historical Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic 308 (2014).
122.        Ex-Marine Slain for Moving Jim Crow Sign, Chicago Defender (Feb. 23, 1946). 
123.        Carol Elaine Anderson, Eyes Off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944-55 (2003) (citing Chicago Defender (Feb. 23, 1946)); Kimberley Phillips, War! What Is It Good For? 90 (2012); The Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Project, Northeastern University School of Law, available at http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/timothy-hood/.
124.        Finding in Negro’s Slaying is Upheld, Birmingham News (Feb. 12, 1946). 
125.        Phillips, supra note 123, at 93.
126.        Frederickson, supra note 109, at 53.
127.        Id.
128.        Woodward tells Bitter Story, Chicago Defender (July 27, 1946).
129.        Id.; Frederickson, supra note , at 54; Freedom for Woodward Attacker Protested, Chicago Defender (Nov. 16, 1946).
130.        Klan Terrorists Linked to Killing, N.Y. Times (June 8, 1946). 
131.        Christopher Waldrep, Lynching in America:  A History in Documents 243-46 (2006).
132.        25 Suspects in Minden Lynching Freed by All-White Jury After 5-Day Trial, Balt. Afro-American (March 8, 1947). 
133.        A Veteran Unavenged, Pitt. Courier (March 15, 1947); Eye-Witness to Louisiana Lynching in Hands of NAACP Investigators, Atl. Daily World (Aug. 20, 1946). 
134.        Id.
135.        Lynch Terror Mounts in South, Daily Worker of New York (Aug. 17, 1946).
136.        War Veteran Lynched By Mississippi Farmers Jones, Lucius, Pitt. Courier (June 29, 1946); Liberty, Mississippi Was Scene of Vet’s Lynching Last August, Informer (TX.) (June 29, 1946).
137.        Phillips, supra note 123, at 98-99.
138.        Dan Barry, The Names Were Separated, Though the Lives Collided, N.Y. Times (Mar. 18, 2007). 
139.        Ronda Racha Penrice, How Black WW2 Vets Helped Lead the Civil Rights Movement, The Grio (May 28, 2012).